Conventional Commit Messages

See how a small change in the style of your commit message can make a difference. Examples

Have a look at CLI util git-conventional-commits to ensure this conventions and generate changelogs

Conventional Commit Messages

Commit Formats


<type>(<optional scope>): <subject>
empty separator line
<optional body>
empty separator line
<optional footer>


Merge branch '<branch name>'

Follows default git merge message


  • API relevant changes
    • feat Commits, that adds a new feature
    • fix Commits, that fixes a bug
  • refactor Commits, that rewrite/restructure your code, however does not change any behaviour
    • perf Commits are special refactor commits, that improve performance
  • style Commits, that do not affect the meaning (white-space, formatting, missing semi-colons, etc)
  • test Commits, that add missing tests or correcting existing tests
  • docs Commits, that affect documentation only
  • build Commits, that affect build components like build tool, ci pipeline, dependencies, project version, …
  • ops Commits, that affect operational components like infrastructure, deployment, backup, recovery, …
  • chore Miscellaneous commits e.g. modifying .gitignore


The scope provides additional contextual information.

  • Is an optional part of the format
  • Allowed Scopes depends on the specific project
  • Don’t use issue identifiers as scopes


The subject contains a succinct description of the change.

  • Is a mandatory part of the format
  • Use the imperative, present tense: “change” not “changed” nor “changes”
    • Think of This commit will <subject>
  • Don’t capitalize the first letter
  • No dot (.) at the end


The body should include the motivation for the change and contrast this with previous behavior.

  • Is an optional part of the format
  • Use the imperative, present tense: “change” not “changed” nor “changes”
  • This is the place to mention issue identifiers and their relations

The footer should contain any information about Breaking Changes and is also the place to reference Issues that this commit refers to.

  • Is an optional part of the format
  • optionally reference an issue by its id.
  • Breaking Changes should start with the word BREAKING CHANGES: followed by space or two newlines. The rest of the commit message is then used for this.


  • feat(shopping cart): add the amazing button
    * ```
      feat: remove ticket list endpoint
      refers to JIRA-1337
      BREAKING CHANGES: ticket enpoints no longer supports list all entites.
  • fix: add missing parameter to service call
    The error occurred because of <reasons>.
    * ```
      build(release): bump version to 1.0.0
  • build: update dependencies
    * ```
      refactor: implement calculation method as recursion
  • style: remove empty line
    ## Git Hook Scripts to ensure commit message header format
    ### commit-msg Hook (local)
    * create following file in your local repository folder`.git-hooks/commit-msg`
      #!/usr/bin/env sh
      # exit with a non zero exit code incase of an invalid commit message
      # use git-conventional-commits, see
      git-conventional-commits commit-msg-hook "$commit_message"
      # or verify $commit_message with your own tooling
      # ...
  • ⚠ make .git-hooks/commit-msg executable (unix: chmod +x '.git-hooks/commit-msg')
  • set git hook directory to .githooks git config core.hooksPath '.git-hooks'
  • commit .git-hooks directory if you want to share them with your team, they only need to call the git config command once after cloning the repository

pre-receive Hook (server side)

  • create following file in your repository folder .git/hooks/pre-receive
    #!/usr/bin/env sh
    # Pre-receive hook that will block commits with messges that do not follow regex rule
    commit_msg_regex="^(${commit_msg_type_regex})(\(${commit_msg_scope_regex}\))?: (${commit_msg_subject_regex})\$"
    merge_msg_regex="^Merge branch '.+'\$"
    # Do not traverse over commits that are already in the repository
    excludeExisting="--not --all"
    while read oldrev newrev refname; do
      # branch or tag get deleted
      if [ "$newrev" = "$zero_commit" ]; then
      # Check for new branch or tag
      if [ "$oldrev" = "$zero_commit" ]; then
        rev_span=`git rev-list $newrev $excludeExisting`
        rev_span=`git rev-list $oldrev..$newrev $excludeExisting`
      for commit in $rev_span; do
        commit_msg_header=$(git show -s --format=%s $commit)
        if ! [[ "$commit_msg_header" =~ (${commit_msg_regex})|(${merge_msg_regex}) ]]; then
          echo "$commit" >&2
          echo "ERROR: Invalid commit message format" >&2
          echo "$commit_msg_header" >&2
    if [ -n "$error" ]; then
      exit 1
  • ⚠ make .git/hooks/pre-receive executable (unix: chmod +x '.git/hooks/pre-receive')